## Loop coproduct in Morse and Floer homology

- By a well-known theorem of Viterbo, the symplectic homology of the cotangent bundle of a closed manifold is isomorphic to the homology of its loop space. In this paper, we extend the scope of this isomorphism in several directions. First, we give a direct definition of Rabinowitz loop homology in terms of Morse theory on the loop space and prove that its product agrees with the pair-of-pants product on Rabinowitz Floer homology. The proof uses compactified moduli spaces of punctured annuli. Second, we prove that, when restricted to positive Floer homology, resp. loop space homology relative to the constant loops, the Viterbo isomorphism intertwines various constructions of secondary pair-of-pants coproducts with the loop homology coproduct. Third, we introduce reduced loop homology, which is a common domain of definition for a canonical reduction of the loop product and for extensions of the loop homology coproduct which together define the structure of a commutative cocommutativeBy a well-known theorem of Viterbo, the symplectic homology of the cotangent bundle of a closed manifold is isomorphic to the homology of its loop space. In this paper, we extend the scope of this isomorphism in several directions. First, we give a direct definition of Rabinowitz loop homology in terms of Morse theory on the loop space and prove that its product agrees with the pair-of-pants product on Rabinowitz Floer homology. The proof uses compactified moduli spaces of punctured annuli. Second, we prove that, when restricted to positive Floer homology, resp. loop space homology relative to the constant loops, the Viterbo isomorphism intertwines various constructions of secondary pair-of-pants coproducts with the loop homology coproduct. Third, we introduce reduced loop homology, which is a common domain of definition for a canonical reduction of the loop product and for extensions of the loop homology coproduct which together define the structure of a commutative cocommutative unital infinitesimal anti-symmetric bialgebra. Along the way, we show that the Abbondandolo–Schwarz quasi-isomorphism going from the Floer complex of quadratic Hamiltonians to the Morse complex of the energy functional can be turned into a filtered chain isomorphism using linear Hamiltonians and the square root of the energy functional.…